The piano is often someone’s first instrument and it forms the foundation for all other instruments as well as the human voice. Digital pianos have advanced significantly since their invention in the 1970s.
Many people, especially those who are just starting to learn the piano, consider digital pianos for their relatively low cost, compact size, and wide range of available features.
With so many different brands and styles, it can be quite daunting to choose a digital piano. This comprehensive guide will help inform your next purchase of a digital piano.
The guide begins with a brief overview of the most popular types of piano. Following this introduction, the parts of a digital piano and the advantages of a digital piano are covered.
Also included in this guide is an index of common terminology for digital pianos—a must-read chapter for anyone who only has a cursory knowledge of the terminology.
Next, the guide profiles five major companies that produce digital pianos: Casio, Korg, Kawai, Roland, and Yamaha. The following section breaks down the major technical specifications for each company’s digital pianos by series and type. We highlight our top picks for 2015 from this near-comprehensive list.
The last three sections are must-read guides for purchasing digital pianos. The first, entitled “Buying Guide for Digital Pianos: Tips and Tricks” also includes a list of questions you must ask before you make a purchase of a digital piano.
Finally, the last section profiles some accessories you need to consider if they are not available for purchase with a digital piano.
Types of Piano
There are many different kinds of pianos and keyboards. Here are the most common types: acoustic piano, digital piano, and synthesizer/workstation.
The piano, or pianoforte, is the most ubiquitous instrument after the human voice. The traditional acoustic piano usually has 88 keys (52 white, 36 black) and produces sound when the keys are depressed, which activates hammers that strike strings in the body of the instrument. Because of this the piano is classified as a percussion instrument.
There are two main types of piano: upright and grand. Grand pianos come in a variety of lengths; the largest that is most commonly used is the 10-foot concert grand. Upright pianos are more compact because the strings are strung vertically instead of horizontally.
There are many variations on the traditional acoustic piano, including the player piano, which reads rolls of music to play itself as well as the toy piano.
A digital piano is an electronic piano that can come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and varieties. There are two general types of digital pianos: console pianos and stage pianos. Console pianos are often used in the home, as they usually have a learning suite, built-in speakers, and a cabinet. Stage pianos, as the name implies, are used for stage performances, often with bands. They will not often come with a cabinet or built-in speakers.
Hybrid pianos combine acoustic technology and digital technology in an effort to get the best touch and response from a compact, low-maintenance instrument.
This guide will mainly focus on varieties of console pianos and stage pianos. As they are very specialized they often come with a hefty price tag, only a few hybrid pianos make this guide.
Synthesizers are keyboards that produce a myriad of sounds. Many synthesizers use pre-recorded—or sampled—sounds instead of producing analog sounds themselves.
Synthesizers are often used in bands or other ensembles, and can be customised according to the style of music played.
Due to their specialty nature, synthesizers are not usually the first keyboard instrument people play, but are purchased as an addition to a pre-existing collection of instruments.
Workstations, like synths, have a variety of sounds, but also come with many features so that it can act like a compact production studio. The most important feature in a workstation is the ability to record and edit audio.
If you are in the market for a synth or workstation, you are likely already beyond the scope of this guide, though several pianos featured here, like the Korg HAVIAN 30 and stage piano SV-1 act as great transitory or crossover instruments as you navigate the territory from digital piano to synth or workstation.
Parts of the Keyboard
There are many features that are common to all digital keyboards. You should be familiar with these features before you purchase a digital piano. Concise definitions for specific terms can be found in the “Terminology for Digital Pianos” section below.
Number of keys
Digital pianos models can come in a number of different amounts of keys. The smallest number is around 20, while the largest is 88—a full keyboard of 52 white and 36 black keys. Typical amounts of smaller keyboards are 61 and 76 keys.
Someone who is just starting the piano may not need all of the keys, although you will need all 88 keys for more complex pieces of classical and jazz music.
Smaller keyboards can be easier to play and more portable, making them great for travelling musicians who are mostly concerned with effects and sounds.
The number of keys in the digital piano you purchase is contingent upon the types and complexity of the music you intend to play.
As well, you must consider where you want to put your piano in your home or studio and any space restrictions you may have when travelling with your instrument.
This term refers to the response of the keybed. Weighted and semi-weighted keys have similar responses to a traditional acoustic piano. Hammer action keys imitate this feel even further by emulating the hammers found in acoustic pianos.
In contrast, you can purchase keyboards and digital pianos with what is called a “synth action” or “organ action”. This means that there is no resistance to the keys whatsoever. As such, very complex passages (like a riff in a pop song) can be played very quickly and easily on these instruments.
Keep in mind, though, this lack of resistance in synth/organ action can make it more difficult to transition to an acoustic piano and develop a proper technique that will carry your piano playing to new levels of musicality.
This is why synth or organ action is usually only found on synthesizers and workstations (where this type of action may be desirable) and cheap keyboards (where this type of action usually indicates a lack of touch sensitivity, and is thus undesirable).
This term refers to the capability of digital pianos to sense subtle differences in velocity to determine the articulation and volume for each depression of a key.
It goes without saying that a keyboard with higher velocity sensitivity will be more responsive to your touch. This can make the transition to an acoustic piano easier and can help you develop a greater sense of musicality.
User Interface Software
This is a computer program that allows the user to interact with the controls of the digital piano. Things like the tones, effects, transposition, and other features are controlled with this software. Several of the most popular features are discussed below.
Unlike an acoustic piano, a digital piano can produce many different tones with just a flick of a button on the user interface software. Popular tones on a digital piano include several types of piano (grand, electric, synthesizer, honkytonk), and string sounds.
Often, keyboards will include hundreds of sound. Keep in mind, though, that it is relatively easy to add all of these low-quality sounds to the software.
The real craftsmanship is in the construction of the keyboard, the quality of the materials, the quality of the software, and the inclusion of features like weighted keys and hammer action.
Don’t be fooled by these advertising gimmicks, but focus instead on the quality of the sounds that you will use most often. This issue is discussed in more depth in the section below called “Buying Guide for Digital Pianos: Tips and Tricks.”
Effects are not tones in and of themselves, but modifications of the tones already produced. For instance, effects can mimic the sounds of a performance hall, giving a grander and more authentic sound. Examples of effects include reverb (reverberation), echo, sustain, chorus, etc.
Transposition is the ability of a digital piano to change the key of what you are playing without changing your fingering or the keys you depress. This is a particularly handy feature when accompanying vocalists, or if you have difficulty playing in certain keys.
Digital pianos with this capability have a big up on acoustic pianos, because it is impossible to transpose so easily on a traditional piano without years of theory, training, and of course, practice.
An arpeggiator turns a single note you play into an arpeggio pattern, creating a fullness of sound without much effort. This is a common and useful feature of synthesizers and digital pianos that have accompaniment features.
This is software that produces rhythms and chords through computerized commands. Musical arrangers are usually MIDI, or Musical Instrument Digital Interface, which is a protocol, digital interface, and connectors that allow electronic instruments and computers to communicate. MIDI is not a sound source but a set of commands that can control a sound source.
A sequencer is a device that records MIDI data and plays it back in a particular sequence, as selected by the user. It is like a modern-day player piano!
Sound Generator/Sound Chip
A chip or circuit within the computer interface of a digital piano that accepts MIDI commands to produce audible sounds.
Amplifier and Speaker
As their names suggest, amplifiers and speakers amplify sounds so that they are audible. Note that most stage pianos do not come with built-in speakers so you will have to purchase them separately.
Advantages of a Digital Piano
Digital pianos have many advantages over traditional acoustic pianos. If you invest in a higher quality digital piano, you can get a piano with features like weighted keys, reverb effects, and realistic sound quality that will compensate for not having an acoustic instrument. Further, with a higher quality instrument you can also benefit more fully from its advantages without sacrifice.
Here is a list of several of the advantages for purchasing a digital piano over an acoustic piano. Remember, however convenient an acoustic piano may be, a real piano will always be better than a digital piano for musicality, this is why you will only see concert classical pianists perform on acoustic pianos.
Generally, digital pianos cost less than traditional acoustic pianos and maintenance costs are definitely lower. For instance, you will never have to pay for a tuner. Unfortunately, if your digital piano breaks it can be much more difficult to fix.
Digital pianos are also often more compact than upright acoustic pianos, and certainly they are more compact than grand pianos.
This can be a great feature if you do not have a lot of space for a piano or you would like to transport your instrument, as described below.
Digital pianos are much lighter and more compact than acoustic pianos, which are made out of heavy wood and metal. Digital pianos are predominantly made out of plastic, making them much lighter.
Moreover, if you are playing gigs in venues without a piano, you will need either a digital piano…or a piano mover. It’s your choice!
Although the best touch-responsiveness is from an acoustic piano, you have the option with digital pianos to play without sound entirely. On a digital piano, you can plug in headphones and play silently.
This feature is very useful if you live in an apartment or even a house full of people who do not always want to listen to you practice.
Some digital pianos come with learning tools that can help you if you are a beginner. LED displays may show the chords being played or music notes on a staff. Many electronic keyboards also have built-in metronomes.
Many pianos can play songs featured in various methods, which can be helpful when you are practicing on your own and need a reference or guide.
Versatility, Recording Capability, and Connectivity
Due to the digital nature of these pianos, you gain many features like built-in recording and sequencing capabilities as well as a variety of tones and sounds.
Most digital pianos are capable of communicating to computers via MIDI link (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). Some digital pianos also come with a USB (Universal Serial Bus) port to connect with other devices or flash memory cards to transfer and store information.
Terminology for Digital Pianos
|Aftertouch||A MIDI control that is activated when pressure is added to a key after it has been played, it can control things like vibrato or volume.|
|Arpeggiator||A function that produces an arpeggio when a single note is depressed.|
|Assignable||Ability to customize keyboard controls.|
|Auto-accompaniment||Feature of some digital pianos that plays a stylized backtrack for performances.|
|Damper Pedal||A pedal that maintains a note’s sustain until released. Also called a sustain pedal. The right most pedal when there is more than one.|
|Variable-Resistance Sustain/Damper Pedal||Imitates the effect of an acoustic sustain pedal and allows for more subtle techniques like half-pedaling.|
|Decay||The speed at which the note fades away after a key is depressed.|
|Digital Signal Processing (DSP)||Manipulation of an information signal; how keyboards produce different sounds, filters, effects, etc.|
|Effects||Processes that change a tone. Common effects are vibrato, reverb, delay, decay, etc.|
|Filter||Alters a tone by removing select frequencies.|
|Hammer Action||A feature in digital pianos that uses small hammers to trigger notes, mimicking an acoustic piano. This creates a more realistic weighted feeling when the keys are depressed.|
|Headphone Jack||Also known as a phone connector, audio jack. Most digital pianos have a 6.35 mm socket where you can connect headphones. If you do not have headphones with this size, you can purchase an inexpensive 6.35 mm to 3.5 mm jack plug adapter.|
|Keybed||Part of a digital piano that includes the keys and their mechanisms.|
|Layer||A function of a digital piano that enhances a sound by overlapping various sounds and tones.|
|Modulation Wheel (Mod Wheel)||A control in the shape of a wheel that modifies elements of a tone.|
|Multitimbrality||The ability of a digital piano to play different sounds at once, not to be confused with polyphony.|
|Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)||A protocol, digital interface, and connectors that allow electronic instruments and computers to communicate.|
|Pitch Bend Wheel||A control on a keyboard that can bend the sounded pitch up or down.|
|Polyphony||The number of individual tones a digital or electronic piano can produce at the same time. Also called maximum polyphony.|
|Rhythms||Drums and other percussion instruments that are programmed into a digital keyboard.|
|Reverb||The persistence of sound after it is produced on a digital piano.|
|Sampler||A tool that records audio from a digital piano so that it can be played back, altered, etc.|
|Sequencer||Records MIDI that can be played back in a programmed sequence.|
|Sostenuto Pedal||A keyboard pedal that is typically found on acoustic grand pianos in between the una corda and damper/sustain pedals. Sustains only the notes that are held down when the pedal is pressed.|
|Split||A function of digital pianos that allows the keyboard to be split into different sections.|
|Sustain||The length of time a note sounds after it is played on a digital piano.|
|Touch Response/Sensitivity||The amount of resistance you feel when you depress a key on a keyboard and the resultant volume response from the instrument. There are three types of touch response: No Touch Response, Touch-Sensitive, and Fully-Weighted.|
|No Touch Response||No difference in volume depending on the force of depression. This is a characteristic trait of cheap keyboards.|
|Touch-Sensitive||More response to the force of the player, but the keys are likely not weighted.|
|Fully-Weighted||The digital piano imitates the hammers of a real piano with higher touch-responsiveness in both velocity and weight.|
|Universal Serial Bus (USB)||A common connection protocol for computers.|
|Velocity Sensitivity||The capability of digital pianos to sense subtle differences in velocity to determine the articulation and volume of each depression of a key.|
|Voices||The different sounds and instrument sounds programmed into a digital piano.|
|Weighted Keys||Hammer mechanisms in the keys of a digital piano that recreate the feel of an acoustic piano.|
|Graded Hammer Action||A graduated weighting in the keys that gives the lower octave keys more weight in digital pianos to more accurately imitate the feel of the heavier hammer/string mechanism in acoustic pianos.|
Major Companies that Produce Digital Pianos
Though there are many companies that manufacture and sell digital pianos, the most popular brands include: Casio, Korg, Kawai, Roland and Yamaha. This guide will focus on the output of each of these major companies so each is profiled briefly below.
Before making a purchase, make sure to check if the model you are interested in is discontinued or recalled, or has been upgraded with a newer version. Note that specifications for each model are subject to change without notice.
Casio is one of the most popular brands of digital pianos for a good reason. Founded in 1946 in Tokyo, Casio is known as a producer of electronics and got their start with the electric calculator.
Casio came out with its first digital piano in 1991. The stylish and affordable Privia series, launched in 2003 is comparable to its competitors Yamaha, Roland, and Kawai.
Founded in 1963 in Tokyo, Japan, Korg is a leader in the production of electronic musical instruments. Though they specialize in synthesizers and workstations and many electronic accessories.
Korg produces several high-quality and aesthetically pleasing personal digital pianos for home use. They have been producing top of the line digital pianos since the 1980s.
Established in Hamamatsu Japan in 1927, Kawai is a manufacturer of both acoustic and digital pianos. With expertise in building acoustic pianos, Kawai produces personal and stage digital pianos of remarkable quality with high touch and sound authenticity.
The Roland Corporation, founded in 1972 in Japan is a top manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, including digital pianos. In 1974, they produced the Roland EP-30, which was the world’s first touch-sensitive electric piano.
Further innovations came in 1986 with the release of the RD-1000 digital piano, the world’s first digital piano based on digital synthesis.
More recently, in 2011, Roland released the V-Piano Grand Digital Piano, its closest grand piano reproduction to date, which will likely form the basis of further development of all types of digital instruments.
Since 1887, when it was making reed organs, the Japanese corporation Yamaha has expanded to be a leader in many diverse and innovative products.
Currently, it is the world’s largest manufacturer of musical instruments. With its vast history and reliable name, when you buy a Yamaha digital piano you know you are getting quality and dependability.
In 2013 Yamaha celebrated the 30-year anniversary of the Clavinova Digital Piano. Yet even with this tradition, Yamaha is always on the cusp of something new; with the release of the innovative CVP-600 the year before you can rest assured that Yamaha is always striving towards the best: the best product, the best technology, and the best customer service.
Digital Pianos by Company
This list is not guaranteed comprehensive, as there are so many different lines and products to consider. That said it comes very close to having all of the lines of five of the most popular and well-respected producers of digital pianos: Casio, Korg, Kawai, Roland, and Yamaha.
The manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP) is included when available from the company. Make sure to check your favoured retailer for their prices, packages, and special deals. We indicate out top choices with an asterisk (*).
Casio produces the popular Privia series of upright and stage pianos, as well as compact pianos, and the Celviano cabinet-style digital piano series.
Also available are digital synthesizers, workstations, lighted keys keyboards, portable keyboards, mini keyboards, which are not included in this guide.
Note that only standard models for each series are listed below. Digital pianos that come with superficial changes like colour are not included.
Privia Digital Pianos
|PX-760 ||Casio’s PX-760 gives high quality sound in a compact design.|
|PX-860 ||The Casio PX-860 is a "flagship" of Casio’s Privia line.|
As the “flagship” of Casio’s Privia line, the PX-860 is remarkably versatile for a mid-market digital piano. With an 88-key Tri-Sensor Scaled Hammer Action II keyboard and Ebony and Ivory textured keys, the PX-860 feels and responds like an acoustic grand piano. In addition, the PX-860 has 256 notes of maximum polyphony and 18 instrument tones, some of which were derived from the PX-5S featured below.
The Casio PX-860 also features an adjustable lid, which functions like a lid on a grand piano. As it is opened, the 20W + 20W amplifier projects sound more readily, and if it is closed, the PX-860 sounds more muted.
With 10 live recordings of philharmonic orchestras, you can feel like a professional as you play along with some of the greatest pieces of music in the literature.
In the Casio tradition, the PX-860 provides “class compliant” USB connectivity so that it can connect with Mac or Windows computers without downloading additional drivers. The PX-860 was the best of Casio’s digital pianos before the arrival of the PX-5S, and it certainly still deserves recognition as a powerful cabinet-style digital piano.
|PX-5S ||Read review|
Of all of the models in Casio’s Privia Digital Piano Stage Series, the PX-5S stands out with the highest sound quality and best features in a portable lightweight design.
At only 24 pounds (without batteries), the PX-5S features tone editing, insert effects, and MIDI controller capabilities along with an 88-key Tri-Sensor Scaled Hammer Action II Keyboard. The PX-5S model is a powerful stage piano at an affordable price.
Powered by Casio’s AiR sound system, providing realism and expression for all of the instrument tones on the PX-5S, not just the piano voices.
With 256-notes the PX-5S also offers a greater maximum polyphony than the majority of stage models, adding to its power.
The PX-5S is also very easy to personalize with easily accessible Stage Settings, which configure up to 4 keyboard zones, knob/slider assignments, phrases, arpeggios, and effects settings. There are 100 user configurable Stage Settings in the PX-5S, which are easily accessible during live shows.
Also featured in the PX-5S are incredible controllers, including 4 knobs, 6 sliders, a Pitch & Modwheel, and 2 pedal inputs.
All of these controllers can be configured separately in each Stage Setting and each knob, slider, or pedal can simultaneously control two parameters at once.
In the Casio tradition, the PX-5S provides “class compliant” USB connectivity so that it can connect with Mac or Windows computers without downloading additional drivers.
Casio’s Privia Pro PX-5S was rated the Best Keyboard/Sound Module of 2013 by the Music & Sounds Awards, and was awarded with a Keybuy award from Keyboard magazine as well as the “Best of Show – Keyboard” award from Sonicstate. The PX-5S is also one of Music Inc. Magazine’s top 50 product picks.
|PX-150 ||Read review||Realistic keyboard action combined with a sleek design makes the Casio PX-150 an excellent choice for a stage piano.|
|PX-160 ||The Casio PX-160 is like the PX-150 but with a redesigned look.|
|PX-350 ||Read review||The next step up in the Privia stage series, the PK-350 features a new sound engine and a lightweight design.|
Compact Digital Pianos
|CDP-130 ||The Casio CDP-130 is a basic and lightweight portable piano.|
|CGP-700 ||Casio’s CGP-700 is known as the “Compact Grand Piano” and it delivers on that promise with a top-of-the line sound system and keyboard.|
With Casio’s Tri-Sensor Scaled Hammer Action II keyboard and 128-note maximum polyphony, the keyboard feels and plays like an acoustic piano. On top of this, the CGP-700’s keys are simulated Ebony and Ivory-textured to make it feel even more realistic.
The piano sounds in this digital piano are sampled from a 9-foot concert grand to capture the most expressive and nuanced sound possible.
Additionally, the CGP-700 features 550 instrument tones, many of which are newly developed, and 200 built-in rhythms and drum patterns for a truly versatile digital system.
Casio’s CGP-700 also comes with a 6 speaker sound system, which includes four speakers in the top panel and two low-frequency speakers in the included stand, making this model pack quite the punch for its small size.
At 26 pounds, the CGP-700 is one of the lightest and most portable 88-key pianos on the market. You can just as easily travel and gig with the CGP-700 as you can learn from its Classroom Mode education function at home.
The CGP-700 also features great connectivity with a USB port that can connect the model to a PC, Mac, or iPad with no drivers needed.
Celviano Digital Pianos
Casio Celviano’s line of digital pianos offers an authentic grand piano experience in a cabinet format. Not included: the AP-260 and AP-460.
At the top of the Celviano digital piano line, the AP-650 features the most authentic keyboard action by Casio yet. You can enjoy authentic and nuanced playing with a Tri-sensor 88-note scaled hammer action keyboard that gives a similar weight and resistance as an acoustic piano without the maintenance. Like an acoustic grand piano, the AP-650 has three built-in pedals: soft, sostenuto, and sustain.
Powered by Casio’s AiR technology, the AP-650 boasts the rich and authentic sounds of a grand piano in a compact cabinet model.
Also featured in this sound source is damper resonance, which mimics the sounds of dampers lifting off of strings when pressing a sustain pedal on an acoustic piano. This makes the response of the AP-650 even more realistic.
With a 256-note maximum polyphony, duet mode, 250 built-in tones, 180 rhythms, and layering, the AP-650 expands on many of the same features as other cabinet models in its class.
Also, with the 16-track recorder system with MIDI capability, the AP-650 stands out in its ability to allow the user to record digital music and save to a USB drive.
In the Casio tradition, the AP-650 provides “class compliant” USB connectivity so that it can connect with Mac or Windows computers without downloading additional drivers.
Though Korg is also known for a variety of synthesizers and workstations, they also produce several realistic digital piano models. Examined below is their LP/SP Personal Piano line and Stage Pianos.
Korg is unique in that they offer what can best be described as crossover models such as the HAVIAN 30, which is a digital piano/workstation crossover, and the SV-1, which is a digital piano/synthesizer crossover.
|LP-180 ||Korg’s LP-180 is a high-quality and aesthetically pleasing digital piano model.|
|LP-380 ||With more colors to choose from, the LP-380 can more easily match your décor.|
|SP-170S ||With a simple design, the Korg SP-170S is stylish and easy to use.|
|SP-280 ||Korg’s SP-280 doubles as a personal or a stage piano.|
|HAVIAN 30 ||As a digital ensemble piano, Korg’s Havian 30 offers an excellent variety of instrument sounds in a compact and sleek cabinet.|
Korg’s Havian 30 has 88 high-quality European hammer-action keys that produce a realistic weight and touch. With the capability to half-pedal, you can create a nuanced performance as if you were playing an acoustic grand.
As a digital piano with many arranger functions, the HAVIAN 30 is a great crossover model, especially for a musician who is interested in learning how to arrange digital music.
There are many built-in sounds and preloaded accompaniment styles in a variety of musical genres. What’s more is that all of these features are user-customizable, or can even be created from the ground up.
There are five accompaniment parts that range from the very simple to complex jazz, so you can always sound like a pro in the genre that you a playing.
Additionally, with the Havian 30, you can play songs in MID and MP3 format. The display can show lyrics and a MIDI song track can be converted into a score for you to play off of. Korg’s Havian 30 also has the capability of recording in MIDI of MP3.
At approximately 33 pounds, the Havian 30 is also quite lightweight and can function as a stage or home model. It is also very intuitive and easy to use with a TouchView display and simple controls.
Although many of the models listed above can double as stage pianos, Korg offers one specific stage model, the SV-1.
|Korg SV-1 ||As a digital piano with many functions of a synthesizer, the Korg SV-1 is a great digital piano for those who are interested in capturing the functionality of both instruments.|
As a stage vintage piano, Korg’s SV-1 really has everything you need in a stage model. It is very elegant and portable with retro-style controls and a sleek finish.
The level of care and detail put into this instrument is simply astounding. The SV-1 has many piano sounds, differentiating between a Japanese and German grand piano, upright pianos, and many other varieties of acoustic and electric pianos.
The vintage electric piano sounds are captured using Korg’s RX 9Real eXperience) Technology and are drawn from a “compendium of electro-mechanical, transistorized, tape-driven, analog, and early digital keyboards.” Korg claims that in the SV-1 you have the most tones of this type ever available in a single instrument.
The SV-1 is available in 4 different key ranges: 73 keys, 88 keys, 73 keys (reverse key) from E to E, and 88 keys (reverse key) from A to C, allowing for more customization and personalization.
Each one of these models comes with RH3 Real Weighted Hammer Action, the finest keyboard that Korg has ever offered. This allows for a more responsive touch.
Additionally, the SV-1 has all the right connections with balanced XLR and ¼” outputs; Left and Right audio outputs; MIDI In and MIDI out jacks; a USB MIDI Port; and three pedal connections (damper, Pedal 1, Pedal 2).
The damper pedal is included with the model and allows for a more authentic half-pedaling response. Pedal 1 is designed as a switch pedal that can also act as a sostenuto pedal. Pedal 2 is designed as a sweep, which is great for “wah” effects, or it can act as the traditional soft pedal found in acoustic grand pianos.
Also available for purchase to complete the gigging package is an optional black stand and a rolling soft case.
New and for a limited time only, you can purchase the SV-1 in a very stylish limited edition model in black with red accents. This makes for a very unique and stylish look on stage with a black body and keys, and red keys for accidentals. It is available in an 88-key and 77-key model, similar to the regular SV-1BK.
Kawai has many different lines of digital pianos, including: the Concert Artist Series, the CN Series, the MP Stage Piano Series, Unclassified Digital Pianos, and Portable Digital Pianos.
Not included: the high-end Kawai Concert Performer Series and Classic Series
Concert Artist Series
For a premium hybrid digital piano, Kawai’s CA97 stands up remarkably well against other digital pianos in the same price range like the Yamaha CLP-545 and the Roland DP90Se.
If you are in the market for a digital piano model that will function primarily as a replication of an acoustic piano, the CA97 comes as close as any.
With Harmonic Imaging XL Sound Technology and 88-key sampling of Shigeru Kawai Concert and Chamber Grand Pianos the piano sounds on this instrument are very authentic.
The touch of the instrument is authentic as well. The CA97 features Kawai’s Grand Feel II (GFII) Wooden-Key Action with Let-Off and Triple Sensor Detection and the surfaces of the keys are made of synthetic ebony and ivory.
The CA97 also boasts an impressive 256 note maximum polyphony and the standard 3 pedals traditionally found on concert grand pianos have a realistic action.
If you are interested in learning the piano, Kawai features built-in lesson songs by Alfred, Czemy, and Beyer and Burmuller methods.
Whether you are just starting out or you are an advanced player looking for a suitable replacement for an acoustic upright, the CA97 hybrid piano is a great option.
|Kawai CN35 ||Kawai’s CN 35 boasts many of the features of the Concert Artist series, but with more sounds and digital functions.|
|Kawai CN25 ||A more affordable model than the CA97, certainly, the Kawai CN25 still offers great quality for its price.|
With counterbalanced keys and Harmonic Imaging for all 88 notes of the keyboard, the CN25 is built with a responsive touch.
The CN25 also has a commendable 192-note maximum polyphony, 19 unique instrument sounds, and Kawai’s “Grand Feel Pedal System.” Also included in the CN25 model are built-in lesson songs by Alfred, Czemy, and Beyer and Burmuller methods (books sold separately).
Kawai’s CN25 also looks very handsome with a premium rosewood finish. The model comes with a matching bench, which is, unfortunately, not adjustable for height.
Stage Pianos: MP Series
|Kawai MP11 ||Kawai’s MP11 is one of the best in its class as a professional stage piano.|
Kawai’s MP Series (including the MP11 and MP7 stage pianos) is the winner of the 2014 Pro Digital Piano Line of the Year, MMR Magazine Dealers’ Choice.
The MP11 is the superior of the two models with an authentic keyboard feel from the Grand Feel (GF) wooden-key action with Let-off.
The MP11’s triple sensors analyze each depression of a key for the most accurate response, while each key feels realistic in a tactile way with ivory-touch surfaces.
Like other high-end Kawai pianos, the MP11’s sounds are sampled through Harmonic Imaging XL. The MP11 includes 40 voices, with an impressive 12 concert, jazz, and pop grand piano sounds.
Also included are many vintage electric piano sounds. On top of these core sounds you can apply over a hundred effects and save your work with over 200 setup memories to further personalize your instrument. The MP11’s panel is intuitively organized; it features a large LCD display and four assignable control knobs.
|Kawai MP11 ||A cheaper model than the MP11, the MP7 still offers a 256-note maximum polyphony, Harmonic Imaging XL, and RH2 Action with Let-Off, Ivory Touch and Triple Sensor Detection.|
|Kawai CE220 ||The Kawai CE220 is the latest addition to this market and its entry into the competition makes it a leading contender on all three of these these fronts.|
With 88-key AWA PROII wooden key graded hammer action with counterbalancing, the Kawai CE220 is possibly the finest touch you can get from a digital piano for its price.
Added to this is Kawai’s 88-key piano sampling with Progressive Harmonic Imagining sound technology, giving a clearer, fuller, and more authentic piano sound. What’s more, it has a commendable 192-voice maximum polyphony.
The CE220 also comes with USB to Device capability to record your playing onto a USB storage device and transfer it to a computer. Other jacks include two standard headphone jacks, line in (L/R), line out (L/Mono), and MIDI (In/Out/Thru).
|Kawai KDP90 ||The KDP90 has Kawai’s high quality standards combined with a good value.|
|Kawai ES7 ||The ES7 is Kawai’s top portable piano.|
|Kawai ES100 ||Read review||As Kawai’s most affordable portable piano, the ES100 still features realistic graded hammer key action and 88-note piano sampling.|
With 19 instrument tones—including eight piano sounds—a 192-note maximum polyphony, and built-in Alfred piano lessons, the ES100 is a great model for those who are just starting to play the piano.
Roland has a variety of stage and upright digital piano models. Not included: Roland’s high-end grand piano cabinets: the V-Piano Grand, RG-3F, and RG-1F.
|Roland V-Piano ||With ground breaking new sound technologies, Roland’s V-Piano is truly a pioneer in the digital piano field.|
The V-Piano is a member of Roland’s “V” series, which includes the V-Accordion, V-Bass, V-Drums, V-Guitar, and V-Synth.
The V-Piano Evolution is set apart from its sample-based competitors and predecessors by adding four new piano models to the feature set.
These pianos are Vertical (a warm sounding upright piano), V1 “Impactance” (a vintage piano with heavier hammers), Triple Large (features three copper-wrapped strings for each key), and “All Silver” (which has a metallic sound).
These sounds are produced “live” as the V-Piano has a “living” piano core, which allows every note to have a natural response without needing samples.
This allows for smoother sounds and an authentic decay. With all of these tools you can create the piano that you want to play, from downloading a famous piano or creating a new one from scratch.
On top of that, the V-Piano features a new PHA-III Ivory Feel Keyboard with Escapement. Though not only do the keys feel like the ebony and ivory of a grand piano, but the touch and response is comparable.
The added escapement feature is a nice touch; it is the small click you feel when the hammer is released from the key in an acoustic piano.
Even with all of these amazing technological advances, Roland’s V-Piano does not have a complicated user interface. In fact, it is very intuitive to use and clean and simple in appearance. The interface features a 240 x 60 dot LCD display.
The V-Piano also has amazing connectivity. It features traditional Input and Output connectivity but also MIDI IN/OUT/THRU, and USB.
There are three pedals, like an acoustic grand, with the option of making one a control pedal that can shift between functions on the keyboard.
The V-Piano is fully customisable and some of the parameters you can control include the hammer hardness, the decay sound, the tone color, the damping time, the damper noise level, and string, damper, soundboard, and key off resonance—just to name a few. There are endless combinations for you to experiment with.
Don’t let the hefty price tag discourage you from considering the V-Piano. Roland’s latest powerful technology represents a turning point in digital piano production.
|Roland RD-800 ||As far as stage pianos go, Roland’s RD-800 is at the top of its class.|
|Roland RD-300NX ||Read review||The Roland RD-300NX is powerful and affordable.|
|Roland RD-64 ||For a compact piano, the Roland RD-64 has a lot to offer.|
|Roland FP-80 ||The compact and stylish Roland FP-80 is great for on-stage performances or at-home enjoyment.|
|Roland FP-50 ||The FP-50 is Roland’s most affordable portable piano of its class.|
|Roland HP508 ||Roland’s HP508 features a SuperNATURAL Piano sound engine and a PHA-4 Premium Keyboard with Escapement and Ebony/Ivory Feel.|
|Roland HP506 ||Similar to the HP508, the HP506 also features a SuperNATURAL Piano sound engine and a PHA-4 Premium Keyboard with Escapement and Ebony/Ivory Feel.|
|Roland HP504 ||Attractive and affordable, Roland’s HP504 can easily connect to your favourite Apple devices.|
|Roland RP401R ||The RP401R offers Roland’s top piano technologies in an attractive and affordable cabinet model.|
The RP401R outranks other instruments in its price class with Roland’s SuperNATURAL Piano sound engine, which has the same musical qualities as an acoustic concert grand piano.
Also, like an acoustic grand, the RP401R has three built-in pedals, including a Progressive Damper Action pedal with continuous response.
If you are learning a new piece, the PR401R offers intelligent accompaniment so you can practice with an exciting ensemble. Also included are 72 built-in different rhythmic styles in a variety of genres.
You can choose either Contemporary Black or Simulated Premium Rosewood cabinet finishes.
|Roland DP90Se ||The DP90Se features Roland’s renowned SuperNATURAL Piano sound engine with PHA-4 Premium Keyboard with Escapement and Ivory Feel.|
|Roland DP90e ||The DP90e features Roland’s renowned SuperNATURAL Piano sound engine with PHA-4 Premium Keyboard with Escapement and Ivory Feel.|
|Roland F-130R ||Roland’s F-130R is an affordable and compact personal piano model.|
|Roland F-20 ||The F-20 is a great first digital piano for a student.|
Yamaha has a wide variety of pianos available for purchase. This guide contains an in-depth look at models in the following: Clavinova Series, Arius/YDP Series, P-Series, DGX Series, Piaggero Slim/Light Series, Entry-Level 61-Key Portable Pianos, and Stage Pianos.
Not included in this guide is the high-end hybrid piano MODUS Series. If you are willing to pay over $20,000 for a digital piano, we recommend that you consider purchasing an acoustic piano.
Over 30 years old, the premium Yamaha Clavinova CLP and CVP Series features the most realistic touch responses you can get in a digital piano. Real Grand Expression allows for the expressive capabilities of a grand piano.
|Yamaha CLP-525 ||The CLP-525 is an excellent first piano in a cabinet model.|
|Yamaha CLP-535 ||The Yamaha CLP-535 is similar to the CLP-525, except slightly larger, more touch sensitivity, and an option between two grand piano sounds.|
|Yamaha CLP-545 ||With Yamaha’s patented “Real Grand Expression” sound, the Clavinova CLP-545 gives the player the distinct sensation of playing a grand piano, all in a cabinet digital piano model.|
Like the other models in the Clavinova, the CLP-545 has a 256-note polyphony, but also features grand piano sounds selected from Yamaha’s CFX (the concert grand played by the winner of the 2010 International Chopin Piano Competition) and the Imperial concert grand from Bösendorfer.
Also featured in the CLP-545 that doesn’t make it to other models in the Clavinova series is a Natural Wood X (NWX) keyboard. This means that the keyboard is crafted with real wood just like a grad piano, giving the CLP-545 a remarkably authentic feel and weight.
If you are looking for a personal piano that is relatively cheaper, lighter, and more compact than an acoustic upright, but still plays like a professional piano, consider the CLP-545 from Yamaha’s Clavinova series.
|Yamaha CLP-565GP ||You’ll look and feel like a professional with the Yamaha CLP-565GP grand piano cabinet.|
|Yamaha CLP-575 ||In the Yamaha CLP-575, every single key is weighted differently, giving the most authentic feel of a digital piano yet.|
|Yamaha CLP-585 ||Exceptional cabinetry makes the Yamaha CLP-585 the most superior digital piano in the Clavinova CLP line.|
|Yamaha CVP-601 ||Superior touch sensitivity and hammer action as well as a number of accompaniment styles make the CVP-601 an excellent digital piano for a serious pianist.|
|Yamaha CVP-605 ||Released in 2012, the Yamaha Clavanova CVP-605 has many musical features to heighten your music making.|
|Yamaha CVP-609 ||Winner of the 2013 Good Design Award, the Yamaha CVP-609 is a sleek digital piano that features a Natural Wood keyboard with Linear Graded Hammers.|
|Yamaha CVP-609GP ||The Yamaha CVP-609GP is similar to the CVP-609, with an added grand piano cabinet.|
The Arius or YDP Series is Yamaha’s central console digital piano with a realistic feel and sound.
|Yamaha YDP-142 |
|The Yamaha YDP-142 is a standard console piano.|
|Yamaha YDP-162 |
|Yamaha’s YDP-162 offers an authentic piano sound and touch for a relatively inexpensive cabinet digital piano.|
Powered by Yamaha’s PureCF Sound Engine, the YDP-162 stands out from others in the Arius/YDP series with a big punch for a not so big price.
At 33 inches tall, the YDP-162 also stands above the other Arius models, which not only makes the cabinet look more aesthetically pleasing, but it also helps with the resonance of the instrument.
With 128-note polyphony, a Graded Hammer (GH) keyboard with Synthetic ivory keytops, and 3 pedals, the YDP-162 is an affordable digital piano that can support a student’s learning from beginner to expert.
|Yamaha YDP-S31 ||The YDP-S31 is a high-quality and compact member of Yamaha’s ARIUS line.|
|Yamaha YDP-S52 ||Yamaha’s new YDP-S52 is an ARIUS with a modern design.|
|Yamaha YDP-C71PE ||The first polished ebony finished ARIUS.|
The Yamaha P-series is legendary for its high quality and relatively low price. These pianos range from the very basic to the more complex and are packaged in a sleek design that is perfect for beginners.
|Yamaha P-35 |
|This is the entry-level digital piano in Yamaha's P-series. The P-35 has a superb sound and powerful features in a portable package.|
|Yamaha P-45 ||Hailed as Yamaha’s most affordable digital piano, the P-45 is a significant step up from the P-35 in quality and playability.|
|Yamaha P-95 ||“The P-95 gives musicians the dynamic, high-quality sound and natural piano touch response they expect from Yamaha, along with a high-quality built-in speaker system are packed slim, exceptionally affordable instrument that's always ready to play when you are.”|
|Yamaha P-105 |
|For a compact portable piano Yamaha’s P-105 offers amazing versatility at a great price.|
As a model that is at the midway mark in the legendary Yamaha P-Series, the P-105 still features 14 built-in voices and 10 rhythmic styles to play with.
The P-105 is also the first in the P-Series to use Yamaha’s “Pure CF sound engine,” which contains sounds sampled from Yamaha’s CFIIIS concert grand piano.
For a compact, portable piano that only weighs in at around 26 pounds, the P-105 still features a Graded Hammer Standard (GHS) keyboard and weighted keys.
It also has amazing connectivity with two headphone jacks, DC IN 12V, optional pedal unit, AUX OUT, and USB TO HOST, making it a very versatile instrument.
Also available with the P-105 is a matching stand (L-85/L-85WH) and pedal unit (LP5A/LP5AWH) in white or black, a necessity for more advanced players.
|Yamaha P-115 |
|The P-115 builds upon the success of the P-105 by adding an app for Apple iOS.|
|Yamaha P-155 |
|P-155 digital pianos have a remarkable professional-quality sound and feel.|
|Yamaha P-255 ||The Yamaha P-255 is a suitable model for all levels of musicians, beginner to serious and its professional sound makes it a good digital piano even for live performance.|
The Yamaha DGX series expands upon the quality of the P-series by including more interactive features like the Yamaha Education Suite (Y.E.S), digital recording, and accompaniment. This is a great series that will certainly encourage music making in young and beginning students.
|Yamaha DGX-230 ||Yamaha’s DGX-230 features a 76-key Graded Soft Touch keyboard with a professional-style pitch bend wheel. This wheel helps improve the sounds of instrument tones, especially for more expressive control of brass and string instrument tones. The DGX-230 also boasts innovative features like the Yamaha Education Suite, USB computer connectivity, and a large selection of realistic voices including the Yamaha Portable Grand.|
|Yamaha DGX-530 ||“DGX-530 features 88 Graded Soft Touch keyboard. All the best sounds are available at the push of button and recording virtuoso performances is simple with built-in recorder. The Yamaha Education Suite and USB connectivity (USB to Device) add functionality.”|
|Yamaha DGX-640 ||“DGX-640 is Yamaha's most piano like ever, with weighted graded hammer actions, ultra-real feel and more. All the best sounds are available at the push of button and recording virtuoso performances is simple with built-in recorder. The Yamaha Education Suite and USB connectivity add functionality.”|
|Yamaha DGX-650 |
|The new DGX-650 offers great interactive features for students with the Yamaha Education Suite (Y.E.S) and professionally-arranged, play-along XG song files from Yamaha MusicSoft. You can also record yourself with CD-quality audio using the USB Audio Recorder, while Style Recommender and Smart Chord can help to make you sound like a pro.|
In addition to these great digital features, the DGX-650 stands out from others in the series with 128-note polyphony, 88-note keyboard with weighted GHS, Damper Resonance (DSP), and Pure CF sampling from Yamaha’s CFIIIS concert grand piano.
With a number of accessories like the FC4 sustain pedal, LP-7A 3-pedal system, i-UX1 iPhone connector, and BB1 piano bench you can really personalize your DGX-650 set up.
These four 61-key lightweight digital pianos are great for beginners. Not included here are the YPT-240 and YPT-340 models, which are redundant in comparison to the EZ-220.
|Yamaha EZ-220 ||Yamaha’s EZ-220 features 61 touch-sensitive and lighted keys. It also includes a remarkably large amount of tones with 392 instrument Voices. In keeping with recent trends in digital piano technology, the EZ-220 features built-in wireless connectivity to Yamaha's Page Turner application for iPad, the EZ-220 Page Turner.|
|Yamaha PSR-E443 ||“61-key touch response keyboard with easy-to-use professional features like AUX IN, DJ pattern mode and assignable Live Control knobs that unlock a world of options for musical expression.”|
|Yamaha PSR-E353 ||Yamaha’s PSR-E353 is a standard digital piano model that features a staggering 573 unique voices and a touch-sensitive keyboard.|
|Yamaha PSR-E253 ||With a very affordable price and boasting the basic features of a personal digital piano, the Yamaha PSR-E253 is a great choice for a first keyboard.|
Piaggero Slim/Light Series
This is a relatively new line-up of 61- and 76-key digital keyboards that are created t be both lightweight and portable. Models include the NP-11, NP-31, NP-V60, and NP-V80.
|Yamaha NP-11 |
|Yamaha NP-31 ||This is the best solution for those who are looking for a lightweight, simple to use, and sleek portable piano.|
|Yamaha NP-V60 |
|Yamaha NP-V80 ||As a play on the Italian word for “light”, “leggero,” Yamaha’s Piaggero series certainly lives up to its name, as all of the models are slim, light, and compact. The NP-V80 stands out from the rest for having the most features for a price tag that is still very affordable.|
The NP-V80 has Yamaha’s Graded Soft Touch (GST) keyboard, which makes keys in the lower octaves heavier than those in the upper octaves.
This mimics the feel of an acoustic piano and gives a very authentic weighted response. It is remarkable for a keyboard that is less than 16 pounds to offer this level of sophistication.
Also, the Piaggero NP-V80 has over 160 preset styles for music arranging, and an intelligent arpeggiator to make you sound professional with very little effort.
CP STAGE Series
Although Yamaha is not known predominantly for its stage pianos, the CP4 and CP40 are solid bets if you are in the market for this type of equipment.
|Yamaha CP4 Stage ||Though Yamaha only offers two specific stage models, the CP4 stands out from the CP40 as it boasts the same features and sounds of Yamaha Premium Grand Pianos, more vintage electric piano sounds than ever before, a Natural Wood keyboard with wooden keys all in a portable package. At 38 and a half pounds, it is also very portable; making travelling to and from gigs a breeze.|
Optional accessories include the LG-800 piano stand, various sustain pedals, and the CP Stage Bag—a must if you are going to travel with this instrument.
|Yamaha CP40 Stage ||Yamaha’s CP40 Stage is similar to the CP4 and has many of the same features. The main difference is that it does not have wooden keys.|
Buying Guide for Digital Pianos: Tips and Tricks
A real piano will nearly always be better than a digital piano on all fronts, that is why you will only see people perform on real pianos in a concert setting.
However, you might not be able to purchase one due to limitations of space, price, or volume. Here are some tips for purchasing a digital piano, as well as a list of questions you must ask before buying a new instrument.
Number of Sounds: Often just a gimmick
Don’t be fooled by the number of sounds a digital piano can produce. Many manufacturers will just put these recordings on the instrument as an advertising gimmick to make more sales.
If you are serious about learning the piano, you will really only need the piano sound–you will likely never use or even imagine a use for all of these other sounds.
The biggest takeaway is that more sounds on the instrument is not correlated with higher quality, make sure to listen to the quality of the sounds that you will use.
Here is a very useful graph of the number of sounds in top digital pianos from Time magazine (http://techland.time.com/2014/01/23/the-definitive-guide-to-digital-pianos/)
Maximum Polyphony: Never less than 64
Maximum polyphony is the number of individual notes a digital or electronic piano can produce at the same time. If you hold the sustain pedal, eventually some notes will be cut off, which can be detrimental when learning more advanced music with a lot of notes.
Anything below a 64 note maximum polyphony is likely not going to help you advance, whereas above 256 is very excessive, and more than you will ever likely need. Aim to purchase at least 128 or more ideally, 256.
The amount of resistance you feel when you depress a key on a keyboard and the resultant volume response from the instrument. There are three main types of touch response: No Touch Response, Touch-Sensitive, and Fully-Weighted.
No Touch Response: No difference in volume depending on the force of depression. This is a characteristic trait of cheap keyboards.
Touch-Sensitive: More response to the force of the player, but the keys are likely not weighted. These are still cheaper pianos
Fully-Weighted: Imitates the hammers of a real piano, higher touch-responsiveness. Though the quality can vary dramatically over the spectrum, this is the trait that you should look for in a digital piano.
Research the Company, Research the Retailer
This almost goes without saying as you are reading this guide right now, but make sure you do your research before purchasing an instrument. Make sure you know the return policy of the retailer before you buy, not after there may be a problem.
Also, it is important to know the manufacturer’s warranty of the instrument, and any modifications that they may have made to the original specifications.
Internet reviews and guides can be helpful, but be careful with these too—you can never truly know someone’s agenda for writing and posting a review of a digital piano.
If you are buying a used instrument, be very careful with online retailers, especially if the deal looks too good to be true—often you’ll find that it is! If possible try to see, or better yet play, the used instrument before making a purchase.
Questions to Ask when Choosing a Digital Piano
Here is a list of important questions you must ask and answer before you purchase a digital piano:
- What is my skill level and what features will benefit me most?
- For what purpose(s) will I use this piano?
- How much am I willing to spend?
- Is this instrument touch sensitive?
- Is there a realistic resistance to the keys?
- What is the touch response of this instrument?
- How many voices does the piano have and how many do I need?
- What is the maximum polyphony of this instrument?
- Are the keys noisy when playing without sound?
- Will this piano fit in the space that I want to put it?
- Is the piano the right height for me or for my child?
- Do I need to travel with this instrument and is it portable?
- Does the digital piano come with built-in amps and speakers?
- Will the piano be loud enough?
- What accessories come with this instrument? What accessories or tools do I have to purchase in addition to the keyboard?
- What is the warranty on the instrument?
- How does this company’s customer service compare to others?
- What is the return policy on the instrument?
Supportive Materials and Accessories
With the digital piano you wish to purchase may want or have to get additional accessories, depending on the features of the instrument. Here are some accessories that you may consider purchasing:
If your digital piano does not have built-in speakers (like the majority of stage pianos), or you are looking to pack a bit more punch, consider buying an electronic amplifier for your digital piano set-up.
Many digital pianos do not come with a piano bench so you must purchase one. Features you should consider are height adjustability, padding, and storage capabilities.
Similarly, some digital piano models do not come with a stand. Check your music retailer for stands that are best suited to the size and weight of your instrument.
Covers, Bags, and Cases
If you are going to be travelling with your instrument, you will need to consider purchasing a case, bag, or cover. Depending on how far you are travelling and the relative abuse your instrument might have to endure, your choice will be different: cases are hard shelled, bags offer some padding, while covers are just a thin protection.
It is a good idea to invest in a high-quality and comfortable pair of headphones if you are planning practicing the digital piano using headphones. Generally, most pianists who practice this way will use over-the-ear headphones instead of ear buds for more comfort and a higher sound quality.
If your digital piano does not come with any pedals, it is essential to buy at least the sustain pedal. If you are serious about your commitment you should invest in a variable-resistance sustain pedal, which imitates the effect of an acoustic sustain pedal.
Do not worry so much about the two other pedals you see on many acoustic pianos: the soft (una corda) and sostenuto pedals are more important for advanced pianists and their features are better suited for the qualities of acoustic pianos.
If your digital piano model does not come with a built-in music stand (like the majority of stage piano models) and you require a stand to read music, you should consider purchasing a music stand.
Music stands come in many varieties, the most popular being the very portable wire and the more heavy-duty orchestral varieties.
“About KORG.” Korg. http://www.korg.com/caen/corporate/.
“Casio History.” World.Casio.com. http://world.casio.com/corporate/history/.
“Company Overview.” Roland. http://www.roland.ca/company/.
“Corporate Profile.” Yamaha.com, 2015. http://ca.yamaha.com/en/about_yamaha/corporate_profile/.
“Kawai America Corporation and Kawai Canada Music.” Kawai. http://www.kawaius.com/main_links/about_us/aboutmain_09.html.
Taylor, Ben. “The Definitive Guide to Digital Pianos.” Time Magazine, January 23, 2014. http://techland.time.com/2014/01/23/the-definitive-guide-to-digital-pianos/.
“The Yamaha Clavinova is celebrating its birthday: 1983 to 2013!” Yamaha.com, October 1, 2013. http://europe.yamaha.com/en/news_events/musical-instruments/30_years_clavinova/.